Endangered Species in Santa Cruz County - Birds


California Clapper Rail

California Clapper Rail

Scientific Name: Rallus Longirostris Obsoletus

Status: E

The California Clapper Rail lives year-round in coastal wetlands and brackish areas around San Francisco, Monterey and Morro Bays, preferring those with growths of pickleweed, cordgrass and bulrush. This species requires shallow water and mudflats for foraging, with high vegetation nearby for cover.

This species is one of the largest rails , measuring 13-19 inches from bill to tail. It is characterized by its hen-like appearance, a long, slightly downward-curving bill, olive-brown upper parts, a cinnamon-buff colored breast, dark flanks crossed by white bars and white undertail coverts which are often exposed when the bird is agitated.

Along the coast, the rail preys on crabs, mussels, clams, snails, insects, spiders and worms. In higher marsh or mudflats, it pecks and scavenges from the surface. Salt glands allow this species to drink either fresh water or saltwater.

Loss of emergent wetland habitat has contributed to decline in numbers particularly over the past 40 years. Other factors negatively affecting this species are: pollution from urban run-off, industrial discharges, sewage effluent, low rainfall, lack of cordgrass for nesting; high tides which have caused nesting failure.

The Clapper Rail itself is subject to predation by the non-native red fox, feral cat and various native mammals. It has been listed as an endangered species, both at the state and federal levels, for more than 35 years.

To Learn More:

  • California Dept. of Fish and Wildlife
    Species description, information about habitat and breeding.
  • NatureServe Explorer
    Enter species name in the search box and you will receive a detailed description of habitat behavior, food, current conservation status, ecological and distribution data, with citations to relevant management reports.
  • U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service
    Documents describing protection for this species under the Endangered Species Act. General information about the species as well as plans both to protect it and to help it recover.
  • U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service
    Comprehensive page of kids' species information from the Sacramento Fish & Wildlife office

Last updated by villasenora on April 16, 2015

Browse by Status Key

E — Endangered

T — Threatened

CH — Critical Habitat

PE — Taxa proposed for listing as endangered

PT — Taxa proposed for listing as threatened

PCH — Critical habitat which has been proposed

C — Candidate species for which the Fish and Wildlife Service has on file sufficient information on the biological vulnerability and threats to support proposals to list as endangered or threatened

D — Delisted due to Recovery