Santa Cruz County History - Architecture

Early History of the Carmelita Cottages: Notes and Bibliography
by Rick Hyman


  1. According to the dates given in John Chase's Sidewalk Companion only 917-919 Third Street (1870-71) and possibly the Terrace Court office and one or two other structures on Beach Hill pre-date the front cottages.
  2. Stanley Stevens to Rick Hyman, personal conversation. [Stevens, Map Librarian, University of California-Santa Cruz, has made a study of the Jacob Rink Snyder 1847 map, Town of Santa Cruz (see Maps, below), and the controversy surrounding land ownership of Santa Cruz, 1847-1866.] Snyder was an early resident of Santa Cruz, later he was an elected delegate from the Sacramento District to the 1849 Constitutional Convention in Monterey (the only surveyor, having served as the Surveyor-General of the Middle District of California; he also held several important posts in the early years of California, including that of State Senator from San Francisco in 1851).
  3. Leon Rowland. Santa Cruz: The Early Years (Santa Cruz: Paper Vision Press, 1980), 114.
  4. See Jonathan D. Stevenson vs. James Bennett, et al. Case # 889, Supreme Court, State of California. 1866. [35 Cal 424]
  5. Roberts to Dame, [Santa Cruz County Book of] Deeds, 5 March 1859, 4:286, for example.
  6. For an account of this activity see "Early Ship-Building," Santa Cruz Sentinel 31 July 1875 3:3.
  7. Renie Leaman, "Abigal Arcan," talk at Santa Cruz Historical Trust, September 9, 1987.
  8. Edward Harrison, History of Santa Cruz County California (San Francisco: History Co., 1890) 308-9.
  9. Santa Cruz Surf 15 June 1894, 3:2 and 28 October 1897, 4:1. These articles together with the Deeds disprove the popular contention that Roberts lived on the Cottages property. However, since he did live next door, he might have had a hand in the construction of those structures built before his death.
  10. McHugh Scrapbook #1, 16 (in UCSC Library, Special Collections).
  11. Captain Dame's namesake was a director of three San Francisco Bay Area railroad companies in the early 1860s. Although the Riptide Centennial Edition for October 19, 1950 indicates that these two Dames were one and the same, Census information (e.g., railroader Dame was born in New York and was a lawyer), and signature comparison strongly suggest otherwise.
  12. "Steamer Santa Cruz," Pacific Sentinel 1 August 1857, 2:1.
  13. "Editorial Correspondence: Trial Trip of the Santa Cruz...," Daily Alta California 27 July 1857, 1:2; and, "Editorial Correspondence: Sea Sickness...," Daily Alta California 29 July 1857, 1:2.
    • 13a. "The Schooner Alfred Adams on Fire at Sea," Pacific Sentinel13 March 1858.
  14. M. Dame v T. Dame, Santa Cruz District Court 437 (1863).
  15. "Sheriff's Sale." Pajaro Times 8 August 1863 2:5 (legal advertisement).
  16. It is possible that this transaction was a legal maneuver that enabled Mary Dame to continue living there, since the transfer was to her sister and husband for a nominal sum.
  17. The entry showing the Hannahs living there may be in error, unless it represented a temporary situation, since for many years they lived on Second Street on Beach Hill.
  18. "Fire," Sentinel 30 July 1870 3:1.
  19. "San Lorenzo Saloon," Sentinel (advertisement ran from February through October 1869).
  20. "Valuable Property for Sale," Sentinel (advertisement ran from August 1872 through January 1873).
  21. "Johnson's Building Burned," Sentinel 20 December 1873, 3:3.
  22. Leon Rowland file cards (in University Library, Special Collections, University of California, Santa Cruz).
  23. "Pioneer Resident of Beach Hill Called By Death," Santa Cruz Evening News 29 November 1920, 5:3.
  24. Barton, Margaret letter to T.V. Johnson, July 12,1878. [The letter was found ca. 1987 by Hostel members during renovation of the Cottages. A photocopy is available in the Historical Trust Archives.]
  25. Surf 3 December 1890, 3:1.
  26. [Santa Cruz County Book of] Homesteads 28 April 1877, 2:465.
  27. "Death of T. V. Johnson," Morning Sentinel 3 January 1903 3:1. The official case of death was listed as "apoplexy," Death Records Santa Cruz City 1891 - 1905, p. 45.
  28. The official deed of November 22, 1870 (Vol.13, p. 252) describes Tait's Cottages property as running 50 feet from Joseph Robert's lot "toward the house where Timothy Dame once lived."
  29. Riptide Centennial Edition for October 19, 1950 says of Dame, "His fortune subsequently dwindled and he was reduced to laboring in Felton. "More research would be necessary to confirm this economic status contention. Some sources say he owned a ranch in Felton, but the Deeds do not confirm this.
  30. "A Jolly Time at the Beach," Sentinel 26 June 1875, 4:2.
  31. Sentinel 17 May 1890, 3:4 (rental of "Dame Cottage" mentioned); Surf 16 September 1890 3:5 "Carmelito Cottage" mentioned).
  32. Surf 14 April 1891 3:4.
  33. Surf 12 August 1891 3:2.
  34. "Beach Hill," Surf 9 May 1885 3:2.
  35. "Beach Hill That Pleasant Precinct Improving In Appearance Daily," Surf (Weekly Edition) 25 October 1890, 7:3.
  36. "Wedding Bells," Surf 23 June 1892 3:3.
  37. ibid.
  38. "A Stylish Wedding," Sentinel 23 June 1892, 3:2.
  39. "Death of Henry Thompson," Surf 18 August 1900 4:3.
  40. Sentinel 27 August 1881, 2:4; 22 April 1882, 1:6; 24 June 1882, 3:5; 6 January 1883, 3:7; 14 April 1883, 2:3; Surf 14 February 1884, 3:2.
  41. "Tomaso's Testimonial," Surf 16 September 1890, 3:2.
  42. "Tomaso," Surf (Weekly Edition) 28 June 1890,7:5. His entire speech is reprinted here. See "Testimonial to Enrico de Tomaso," Sentinel 28 June 1890, 3:2 for a list of guests.
  43. See "A Popular Vocalist," Surf (Weekly Edition) 27 September 1890, 6:4 for the words to this song. See "A Rousing Testimonial," Sentinel 20 September 1890, 3:4 for Tomaso's brief thank you speech. Also, see "Correspondence," Surf 5 September 1890, 3:4 for a list of the 93 people and businesses requesting the benefit concert and Tomaso's response.
  44. "Sandy's Corners An Enthusiastic Old-Time Democratic Pow-Wow," Surf 15 October 1 1890,3:3, for example.
  45. "The Clerks," Surf 20 October 1891, 3:2; "Seven-Thirty," Surf 23 October 1891, 3:3.
  46. "Kindersymphony," Surf 23 June 1891 1:4.
  47. [Henry Thompson] Enrico deTomaso, "Emma Abbott," Surf 8 January 1891, 3:4.
  48. See "Verdi," Surf 16 February 1892, 3:3 for a full column transcript of Tomaso's lecture.
  49. "Last Evening," Surf 10 June 1892, 8:1.
  50. "A Guild Garden Party," Surf 27 August 1891, 3:4; see also, "A Delightful Garden Party," Sentinel 28 August 1891, 2:2.
  51. Although the March 28, 1903, deed to Mrs. Johnson does not mention this cottage, the photograph taken before 1897 appears to show it.
  52. [City of Santa Cruz] "National Register of Historic Places Nomination Form," 16 December 1983, 3.
  53. Ibid.
  54. "Pioneer Resident of Beach Hill Called by Death," Evening News 29 November 1920, 5:3.
  55. Millie Robbins, "Sly the Marrying Millionaire," San Francisco Chronicle 19 March 1967, 6:2 (Sunday Punch.)
  56. "Wedding of Local Interest At Capital City," Evening News 3 December 21, 1:4.
  57. "Lottie Sly Seeks Divorce in S.F.," Sentinel 25 January 1924, 4:3.
  58. Robbins, ibid note 55, and "Lottie Sly Seeks Divorce in S.F.," ibid. note 57. However, the Official Records do not indicate a sale of the Villa property during this period.



Chase, John. The Sidewalk Companion to Santa Cruz Architecture. Santa Cruz: Paper Vision Press, 1979.

Genealogical Society of Santa Cruz County. Indexed Cemetery Records of Santa Cruz County California, 1980. Santa Cruz: The Society, 1980.

Harrison, Edward S. History of Santa Cruz County California. San Francisco: Pacific Press, 1892 (on Roberts).

Koch, Margaret. Santa Cruz County: Parade of the Past. Fresno: Valley Publishers, 1973 (on Fallon).

Latta, Frank. Death Valley '49ers. Santa Cruz: Bear State Books, 1979 (on Arcan).

Rowland, Leon. Santa Cruz: The Early Years. Santa Cruz: Paper Vision Press, 1980.


Handbook and Directory of Santa Clara, San Benito, Santa Cruz, Monterey and San Mateo Counties. San Francisco: L. L. Paulson. 1875.

McKenney's District Directory for 1879 for Alameda, Contra Costa, San Mateo, Santa Clara, Santa Cruz, San Benito, Monterey Counties. San Francisco: L. M. McKenney. 1879.

Pacific Coast Business Directory for l876-1878. San Francisco: Henry Langley, 1876.

San Jose City Directory for 1884-1885. San Francisco: L. M. McKenney & Co., 1884.

San Jose City Directory for 1887-1888. San Francisco: Uhlorn and McKenney, 1887.

San Jose City Directory for 1889. San Francisco: McKenney Directory Co., 1889.

San Jose City Directories for 1890, 1892. San Francisco: F. M. Husted, 1890, 1892.

Santa Cruz City Directory. Santa Cruz: George Kramer, 1897.

Santa Cruz City Directory. Santa Cruz: H. E. Irish. 1902.

Santa Cruz City Directory 1924. Santa Cruz: Scott L. Imhoff, 1924.

Santa Cruz County Directory 1910-11. Santa Cruz: Albert Thurston, 1909.

Santa Cruz County Directory 1916-1917. Santa Cruz: Santa Cruz Directory Co., 1916.

Santa Cruz County Directory 1918-19. Santa Cruz: Western Directory Co., 1918. Also, directories for 1920, 1921, 1922, and 1924.

Santa Cruz, Watsonville and Boulder Creek Directory 1906-07. Santa Cruz: Santa Cruz County Directory Co., 1906.

Thurston's Business and Resident Directory 1912-1913 Santa Cruz, Watsonville, and the Pajaro Valley. Santa Cruz: Albert Thurston, 1911. [also for 1914-1915, 1913.]


Alta California [Many articles throughout the period.]

"Husband Lost Love for Wife While on Trip," San Francisco Chronicle 25 January 1924, 3:6.

McHugh Scrapbook # 1, 16 (undated-unidentified newspaper articles at University Library, Special Collections, University of California, Santa Cruz)

Pajaro Times (became Santa Cruz Times.) [Many articles throughout the period.]

Riptide Centennial Edition for October 19, 1950.

Robbins, Millie. "Sly the Marrying Millionaire," San Francisco Chronicle 19 March 1967, (Sunday Punch) 6:2.

Rowland Scrapbook, 41, 156,181, 252 (unidentified newspaper articles at University Library, Special Collections, University of California, Santa Cruz).

Santa Cruz Evening News. [Many articles throughout the period.]

Santa Cruz Sentinel. [Many articles throughout the period.]

Santa Cruz Surf. [Many articles throughout the period.]

Santa Rose Press Democrat 23 November 1959, page 10; 25 November 1959, page 6; 26 November 1959, page 10.

"SF Woman Awarded Apartment Building," San Francisco Chronicle 31 January 1924, 7:4.

"Social Act Ruled Likely by May 17, Devalued Dollar Case Rejected," New York Times 4 May 1937, 14:5.

Watsonville Pajaronian. [many articles throughout the period.]


Foreman, Solomon, and Thomas W. Wright. "Map fractional township No. 11 S Range No. 2 W Monte Diablo Meridian embracing Santa Cruz - Surveyed by Foreman & Wright 1866." [This map has two parts which are also known as Official Map of Santa Cruz and Official Map B of Santa Cruz.]

"Lottie Sly Property," City of Santa Cruz Planning File LM-84-01 (plot plan).

Sanborn Map Company. "Santa Cruz" Fire Insurance Maps: 1888,1892,1905,1917.

Santa Cruz Co. "Assessor's Maps," 5:19.

Snyder, Jacob Rink. "Town of Santa Cruz," 1847. [Reproduction in University Library, Map Room, University of California, Santa Cruz; reproduced from the map filed in the Supreme Court records in the California State Archives as an Exhibit in Jonathan D. Stevenson vs. James Bennett, et al. Case # 889, Supreme Court, State of California. 1866. [35 Cal 424].

United States Coast Survey. Preliminary surveys of harbors on the Western Coast of the United States. [One of the harbors on this chart is:] "Santa Cruz Harbor and Vicinity" Scale 1:40,000. "Topography was executed in l853." Washington, D.C. : U.S. Coast Survey, 1854.

Santa Cruz County Official Records

Alcalde Book. 1:120.

Certificates of Death. 1920-23, City of Santa Cruz: page 104.

Death Record 1891-1905: 45, 870.

Deeds. Book 1: Page 551; 2:19; 2:341; 3:348; 4:383; 4:384; 6:505; 7:457; 8:234; 8:324; 8:428; 10:271(373); 10:387(538); 12:205; 12:778; 13:(282)445; 13:(252)396; 13:(298)423; 16:232; 16:383; 31:508; 35:225; 35:322; 48:342; 69:282; 115:9; 49:237.

District Court Cases. 437 (1863); 518 (1865); 1451 (1877) (microfilm).

Great Register. 1867; 1872; 1875; 1876; 1877; 1879; 1880; 1882; 1884; 1886; 1888; 1890; 1892; 1894; 1896; 1898; 1904; 1914.

Homesteads. 1:548; 2:465.

Marriages. 1:28; 1:479; 2:167; 2:178; 3:501; 7:23.

Mortgages. 5:10; 6:598; 8:400; 11:537; 14:137; 15:270; 26:321; 30:122; 32:45.

Official Records. 1:151; 295:237; 278:344; 1068:348 (microfiche).

Record of Deaths 1915-1919 City of Santa Cruz: 203.

Superior Court Probate Cases. 184 (1885); 1218 (1903); 4677 (1925); 14249 (1955) (microfilm).

Trust Deeds. 6:62.

Personal Communications

Budworth, Lynn.

Clark, Randy.

Cross, Claire.

Cross, Janet.

Guilbert, Lois.

Guilbert, Robert.

Kearney, Ken.

Reader, Phil.

Scott, JoAnne.

Other Sources

Barton, Margaret letter to T. V. Johnson, July 12, 1878.

Board of Fire Underwriters of the Pacific, "Specific Ratings," 1908 (record booklet).

California Death Records (microfiche).

"Carmelita Cottages. 1880s/1890s" (photograph on file at City Museum); untitled cottages photograph (personal collection of Jack Howe).

"Carmelita Court, 22 Main St."c. 1920s (postcard)

Church of Latter Day Saints, International Geneology Index: British Isles.(computer disk).

[City of Santa Cruz]. "National Register of Historic Places Inventory Nomination Form (for Carmelita Cottages), 16 December 1983.

Gifford, Charles, "Bird's Eye View of Santa Cruz," 1874 (lithograph).

Leaman, Renie. "Abigal Arcan," talk at Santa Cruz County Historical Trust, September 9,1987.

Santa Cruz Chamber of Commerce, "Visitor's Guide to Santa Cruz," 1912 (brochure).

"United States Census for Santa Cruz, California." 1850, 1860, 1870, 1880, 1900, 1910, 1920 (microfilm).

United States Custom House (Monterey, California) Records; Inspection Returns Santa Cruz, 1854 - 1863,

This article is a revision of the article originally published in Every Structure Tells a Story: How to Research the History of a Property in Santa Cruz County. Santa Cruz, CA, Santa Cruz County Historical Trust, 1990. Copyright 1990 Santa Cruz County Historical Trust. Revised material copyright 1996 Rick Hyman. Reproduced by permission of the Santa Cruz County Historical Trust and the author.

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