Santa Cruz County History - Religion & Spirituality

Santa Cruz Spirituality: General Bibliography
by Paul Tutwiler

All the sources I use in the list of associations are public information, such as public records of many kinds, city and telephone directories, newspaper articles, and published books. In a very few instances, which I note in the text, people associated with a group volunteered for the purposes of this work information that was not otherwise in the public domain.

Local Sources

Books, pamphlets, directories

A Century of Christian Witness: History of First Congregational Church, Santa Cruz, California. Santa Cruz: Church Historical Committee, 1963.

Chase, John Leighton. The Sidewalk Companion to Santa Cruz Architecture. 3rd ed. Santa Cruz, California: Museum of Art and History, 2005.

Clark, Donald. Santa Cruz County Place Names. Santa Cruz, California: Santa Cruz Historical Society, 1986.

Elliott, Wallace W. Santa Cruz County California. Illustrations with Historical Sketch. Indexed Edition. Santa Cruz, California: The Museum of Art and History at the McPherson Center, 1997.

Francis, Phil. Santa Cruz County; A Faithful Reproduction in Print and Photography of its Climate, Capabilities, and Beauties. San Francisco: H.S. Crocker Company, 1896.

Gibson, Ross Eric. Series of columns on early churches and other religious institutions in early Santa Cruz County. San Jose Mercury News. May 18, 1993, Mar 15, Aug 16, and Nov 22, 1994.

Harrison, E. S. History of Santa Cruz County, California. San Francisco: Pacific Press Publ. Co., 1892.

Koch, Margaret. Santa Cruz County — Parade of the Past. Santa Cruz, California: Western Tanager Press/Valley Publishers, 1973.

The Ladies of Bonny Doon Club. Memories of the Mountain: Family Life in Bonny Doon 1800-2000. Bloomington, Indiana: AuthorHouse, 2004.

Lewis, Betty. Watsonville Yesterday. Watsonville: Litho Watsonville Press, 1978.

Lewis, Betty. Watsonville: Memories That Linger. Santa Cruz: Valley Publishers, 1980.

Malmin, Judy Pybrum. Corralitos. Revised ed. Corralitos: published by the author, 1998.

McCarthy, Nancy. Where Grizzlies Roamed the Canyons: The Story of the San Lorenzo Valley. Palo Alto, California: Garden Court Press, 1994.

McHugh, Thomas, ed. The McHugh Scrapbook. 3 vols.
Thomas McHugh compiled much historical information which is to be found in the form of newspaper clippings in a scrapbook. Some of the clippings which were used in the present study were dated in the 1950s, and others have no date at all, but none of them used here cite the sources of the information, and they are included by the writer only if they plausibly fill in gaps left by reliable sources.

Payne, Stephen. A Howling Wilderness: The Summit Road of the Santa Cruz Mountains 1850-1906. Los Gatos, California: Loma Prieta Publishing, 1978.

Rowland, Leon. Annals of Santa Cruz. Santa Cruz: Seven Seas Book Shop, 1947.

Santa Cruz Historic Building Survey. Vol 1. San Francisco: Charles Hall Page & Associates, 1976.

Santa Cruz Historic Building Survey. Vol 2. 1976. Santa Cruz: City of Santa Cruz Department of Planning & Community Development, 1989.

Seapy, Donald E. Scotts Valley: as it was and as it would become. Ed. by Dave G. Seapy. Scotts Valley, California: 2001.

Swift, Carolyn. Historic Context Statement for the City of Capitola. Capitola: Capitola Museum, published draft of June 24, 2004.

Tarquinio, Margaret Louise Rapp. Mama's Memoirs: Growing Up in the Santa Cruz Mountains. Los Gatos, California: Vista Del Mar Press, 1995.

Torchiana, Henry Albert van Coenen. Story of the Mission Santa Cruz. San Francisco: Paul Elder and Company, 1933.

Young, John V. Ghost Towns of the Santa Cruz Mountains. Santa Cruz: Paper Vision Press, 1979.

City and county directories

The City Directory, Santa Cruz, California. Santa Cruz: Western Directory Co., 1923-1924.

Martin, Edward, ed. Directory of the town of Watsonville. Watsonville, CA: C.O. Cummings, 1873.

Resident and Classified Business Directory Santa Cruz, East Santa Cruz, Watsonville, Bowlder Creek [sic], Capitola and Soquel. Pasadena and Santa Cruz: California Directory Co., 1904.

R.L. Polk & Co. Polk's Santa Cruz California City and County Directory. San Francisco and Los Angeles: R.L. Polk & Co., 1924-88.
1924-1964 for Santa Cruz and Watsonville combined, and 1965-1988 for Santa Cruz and Watsonville separately. A few of these many issues were missing from the local collections I consulted. In the Particulars section I cite Polk from 1963, 1973, and 1982-83 for listings of organizations offering instruction in meditation, martial arts, and alternative medicine.

San Jose City Directory: including Santa Clara, Santa Cruz and Monterey Counties. San Francisco: McKenney Directory Co., 1887-88 and 1889. San Jose(?): F. M. Husted Publisher, 1892.

Santa Cruz City Directory for the Year 1902. Santa Cruz: K. E. Irish Press, 1902.

Santa Cruz County Directory 1916-1917. Santa Cruz: The Santa Cruz Directory Company, 1916.

Thurston's Resident and Classified Business Directory of Santa Cruz, Watsonville and Boulder Creek 1910-1911 and 1912-1913. Santa Cruz: Albert Thurston, 1910, 1912.

Yellow Pages and White Pages telephone directories for all years from 1946 to 2006. During some periods these were of SBC, during others they were of Pacific Telephone and Telegraph, and during others they were of Pacific Bell. Currently they are of AT&T.


Periodicals are currently issued unless otherwise noted.

Boulder Creek Mountain Echo 1896-1916 (indexed)

Connection Magazine

Mid County Post

Santa Cruz Evening News 1919-1941 (indexed)

Santa Cruz Good Times

Santa Cruz Metro

Santa Cruz Sentinel (with variants in name) 1856-1884, 1940-1943, 1949-1956, 1999-present (indexed)

Santa Cruz Surf 1883-1919 (indexed)

Valley Press

Watsonville Pajaronian (with variants in name): beginning of year church directories for the years 1885-1930

Public Documents

Santa Cruz County Articles of Incorporation

Santa Cruz County Deeds

Santa Cruz County Records


The first three of the sites named here have third party lists, which I use cautiously, confirming the existence and nature of organizations they list with at least one other source before including them. Community Link & Strategic Digital Outreach. 2010.
Lists Christian churches, schools, businesses, etc. in Santa Cruz.

The Center for World Networking. The Center for World Networking. 2010.
Lists many non-traditional spiritual organizations, including derivatives such as Yoga instruction schools.

Santa Cruz Wiki. 2010. AT&T. 2010.
For several years before 2006 this website's address was

Libraries, museums, archives

California Historical Society Archives, San Francisco

California State Library, Sacramento

Capitola Museum

Graduate Theological Union Flora Lamson Hewlett Library, Berkeley

Pajaro Valley Historical Association, Watsonville

San Lorenzo Valley Museum, Boulder Creek

Santa Cruz County Museum of Art and History

Santa Cruz County Public Library System

University of California Berkeley Bancroft Library and Doe Library

University of California Santa Cruz Library Special Collections

Regional Sources


Alexander, Kay. Californian Catholicism. Santa Barbara: Fithian Press, 1993.

Anthony, Charles Volney. Fifty Years of Methodism: A History of the Methodist Episcopal Church Within the Bounds of the California Annual Conference From 1847 to 1897. San Francisco: Methodist Book Concern, 1901.

Ernst, Eldon G. and Douglas Firth Anderson. Pilgrim Progression: The Protestant Experience in California. Santa Barbara: Fithian Press, 1993.

Frankiel, Sandra Sizer. California's Spiritual Frontiers: Religious Alternatives in Anglo-Protestantism, 1850-1910. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1988.

Gregory, James N. American Exodus: The Dust Bowl Migration and Okie Culture in California. New York: Oxford University Press, 1989.

Hamilton, Robert S., Jr. The History and Influence of the Baptist Church in California, 1848-1899. Diss. University of Southern California, 1953.

Maffly-Kipp, Laurie F. Religion and Society in Frontier California. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1994.

McCumber, Harold O. Beginnings of the Seventh-Day Adventist Church in California. Diss. University of California Berkeley, 1934.

Shattuck, Cybelle T. Dharma in the Golden State: South Asian Religious Traditions in California. Santa Barbara: Fithian Press, 1996.

Simmons, John K. and Brian Wilson. Competing Visions of Paradise: The California Experience of 19th Century American Sectarianism. Santa Barbara: Fithian Press, 1993.

Stensrud, Edward Martinus. The Lutheran Church and California. San Francisco, 1916.

Szasz, Ferenc Morton. Religion in the Modern American West. Tucson: The University of Arizona Press, 2000.

Ware, E. B. History of the Disciples of Christ in California. Healdsburg, California, 1916.


Drury, Clifford M. "The beginnings of the Presbyterian Church on the Pacific Coast." The Pacific Historical Review 9.2 (1940): 195-204.

Ernst, Eldon G. "The Emergence of California in American Religious Historiography," Religion and American Culture: A Journal of Interpretation 11.1 (2001): 31-52.

General sources

General works on particular spiritual families are located with the families themselves.


Communities Directory: A guide to intentional communities and cooperative living. Rutledge, Missouri: Fellowship for International Community, 2000.

Lindner, Eileen W., ed. Yearbook of American & Canadian Churches 2003. Nashville: Abingdon Press.
Almost entirely about Protestant bodies.

Lippy, Charles H. and Peter W. Williams, Eds., Encyclopedia of the American Religious Experience. 3 volumes. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1988.

Mead, Frank S. Handbook of Denominations in the United States. 10th ed., Samuel S. Hill. Nashville: Abingdon Press, 1995.

Melton, J. Gordon. The Encyclopedia of American Religions. 2nd ed. Detroit: Gale Research Co., 1987.

---. The Encyclopedia of American Religions: Religious Creeds. Detroit: Gale Research Co., 1988.

---. Encyclopedic Handbook of Cults in America. Revised edition. New York: Garland Publishing Co., 1992.

Partridge, Christopher, ed. New Religions. New York: Oxford University Press, 2004.

Websites National & World Religion Statistics - Church Statistics - World Religions. 2010.

The Apologetics Index. Apologetics Index. 2010.
Much information on many groups, but with explicit Christian editorializing.

The Association of Religion Data Archives. The Association of Religion Data Archives. 2010.
Has huge data bases, including statistics.

DMOZ Open Directory Project. Netscape. 2010.
Immense categorized list of websites which makes it easy to find information on religious (as well as other) bodies; also brings up religious texts.

Hartford Institute for Religious Research. Hartford Institute for Religious Research. 2010.
Especially valuable is the list of denominational homepages.

The Internet Sacred Text Archive. 2010.
Texts of many writings considered holy.

Religious Movements Homepage Project. The University of Virginia. 2010.
Non-judgmental information on the basics of many religious bodies. In 2008 it was being changed; parts of it had been archived and could be reached through Ontario Consultants on Religious Tolerance. 2010.
Abundant information on a very broad range of spirituality.

The Skeptic's Dictionary. 2010.
Extensive treatment of the pros and cons of non-mainstream spirituality.

"The Web Resources of the Religious Bodies Listed in the Yearbook of American and Canadian Churches." National Council of the Churches of Christ in the USA. 2010.
Contains a list of denominational homepages.

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churches, Santa Cruz


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