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Santa Cruz County History - Executive Order 9066 and the Residents of Santa Cruz County
Santa Cruz Sentinel-News, Evening Edition. Feb. 4, 1942. p. 1
'CURFEW' HITS ALL LOCAL ALIENS
HUGE COAST AREA HIT BY NEW REGULATIONS
Italian, Japanese, and German aliens in all of Santa Cruz county will be subjected to a 9 p.m. curfew and be permitted to travel only between their homes and jobs after Feb. 24.
Meantime, in connection with yesterday's local evacuation order, Thomas Clark, alien co-ordinator for the western defense command, indicated "farm colonies might be established for enemy aliens and their families ordered out of vital defense areas."
The new order, originating Wednesday from the office of Attorney General Francis Biddle, includes a broader territory than the previous restricted area west of State Highway No. 1, from which all such aliens must evacuate by Feb. 24.
The curfew restrictions are:
1. Between the hours of 9 p.m. and 6 a.m. all enemy aliens shall be within the place of residence indicated on their identification certificates.
2. At all other times they must be found only at the place of residence or employment indicated on their identification certificates, or going between these two places, or within an area of not more than five miles from the place of residence.
Biddle said an enemy alien found during the curfew hours anywhere except at his home or place of employment would be subject to immediate arrest and internment.
He said exceptions would be granted by U.S. attorneys only in cases "where a compelling reason exists and after completion of a suitable investigation."
A large portion of California is affected by this latest ruling.
Biddle announced also that certain alien enemies may be excluded entirely from the restricted areas whenever the justice department deems such action necessary.
In this connection he called upon police or other persons in Santa Cruz, as well as other communities, in possession of information concerning enemy aliens whose presence within a restricted area might endanger the national security, to turn this information over to the federal bureau of investigation.
Clark also said instructions would be given the aliens shortly regarding disposition of themselves and their families after they leave the restricted defense area. He said federal agencies were ready to extend relief to such families if and when needed.
He did not indicate concerning the possibility of farm colonies whether they would be established in interior California or in some other states. Governor Culbert Olson said he did not believe there would be any mass exodus to states in the interior.
The proscribed area, about 500 miles long and varying from 30 to 150 miles in width, extends from the Oregon border along the coast line to a point about 50 miles north of Los Angeles.
Biddle explained that the restricted area does not extend south to the Mexican border because no recommendations for such action in southern sections of California had been received yet from the war department.
In addition, Biddle designated 11 more "restricted" areas in which enemy aliens must obey the curfew regulations. These were in the vicinity of hydro-electric generating plants throughout California.
In addition to the restricted areas, Biddle has established 86 prohibited areas in California. Enemy aliens must completely evacuate 69 of these areas by Feb. 15 and the other 17 by Feb. 24.
The extensive coastline region designated as "restricted Area No. 1" has an eastern boundary beginning at a point in Siskiyou county where U.S. Highway No. 99 crosses into Oregon. The boundary then juts west and south generally along the lines of the Klamath and Trinity rivers, approximately to the town of Redwood Valley, in Mendocino county.
At that point the boundary swings eastward just north of Clear Lake to Marysville, and then turns south, passing east of Sacramento and Stockton, and thence to a point just north of Maricopa.
The southern boundary of the area follows the line delineating the northern and southern California military sectors, which runs eastward from a point on the coast near the boundary between San Luis Obispo and Santa Barbara counties.
The other restricted areas designated today include property extending form 300 to 500 feet in any direction from the following hydro-electric generating plants of the Pacific Gas and Electric Co.: Hat Creek No. 1 and No. 2, and the Coleman plant, all in Shasta county; the De Salba plant, Butte county; the Colgate plant, Yuba county; the Spaulding No. 1, No. 2 and No. 3 plants in Nevada and Placer counties; the Halsey plant, Placer county, and the Weise plant, Placer county.
The area within 500 feet in any direction from the Big Creek hydro-electric generating plant of the California Electric Pacific Co., located seven miles north of Bishop in Mono county, also was restricted.
Meantime, Donald Younger appealed to Governor Olson to use his influence toward creation of a federal agency to pass upon aliens "who might be given permits to continue working on ranches," under management of American citizens.
Younger's efforts are aimed, it was explained, to prevent disruption of important farming industries in this county and elsewhere along the coast.
Explaining that Italian-Americans engaged in production of artichokes, brussels sprouts, broccoli, and other vegetables, occupy approximately 3500 acres of coastal land in Santa Cruz county, Younger said that the exclusion of such farmers from this region would result in serious financial and agricultural loss, in a night letter to the governor last Saturday.
In reply, the governor wired: "...I believe that farmers of Italian lineage who have not yet become citizens of the United States, but are thoroughly loyal to this country in its war with Italy, will not be disturbed in carrying on their agricultural production work. Press report had reference to denial of licenses to alien enemy produce distributors who, as such licensees, are given access to Army and Navy reserves and other vital defense areas. About seventy-five per cent of such licensees happen to be Japanese and the greater part of them are alien Japanese.
"As to all who are classified as alien enemies, careful surveys will be made and census taken so as to protect the innocent and the loyal from whom no sabotage or fifth column activities could spring. They will be given an opportunity to demonstrate their loyalty to the United States."
CHEERED BY ANSWER
Cheered by the governor's reply, Younger wired yesterday:
"Santa Cruz county Italian-American farmers, including American citizens employing aliens and aliens who are loyal to United States but neglected naturalization, were greatly heartened tonight by your telegram.
"United States attorney general Monday, announced fifteen additional areas in which enemy aliens will be excluded. Number 28 included land between state highway No. 1 and Pacific ocean or Monterey bay from Laguna creek, northerly of Santa Cruz, to Carmel river, Monterey county. This includes most of the acreage in Santa Cruz county that is farmed by Italian-Americans, much of which is not near any defense installation. It also includes major portion of Santa Cruz, including business area, but excluding reservoirs and public utility plants.
"Tuesday's Washington dispatches indicate no exceptions to alien evacuation orders, which is well for areas such as Camp McQuaide, Santa Cruz county, and Fort Ord, Monterey county, but would be hard on Santa Cruz county, which needs vegetables now produced by Italian-Americans.
"Santa Cruz coast farmers wonder if Attorney General Biddle could not approve of some federal agency, perhaps not even connected with the United States department of agriculture, or some state agency, appointing voluntary, independent committee in each county to pass upon or recommend aliens who might be given permits to continue working on ranches, perhaps providing ranches must be managed by a citizen. Bond or other security might even be required before issuance of such permit. Believe such a committee or commission and bond authorized under section 21 of title 50 of the United States Code."
Copyrighted by the Santa Cruz Sentinel-News, Evening Edition. Reproduced by permission.