Santa Cruz County History - Religion & Spirituality



Santa Cruz Spirituality: Tables
by Paul Tutwiler

There are eleven groups in the list of associations I know to have been legally incorporated, but I have not found evidence that they existed in reality. They are not counted in these tables.

Table 1: All associations listed, analyzed by type of activity

Family Worship Conf. Center School Service Org. Community TOTAL
Western Liturgical 27 6 13 9 4 59
Eastern Liturgical 5 0 1 1 1 8
Lutheran 8 1 0 1 0 10
Reformed-Presbyterian 23 1 0 0 0 24
Pietist-Methodist 15 4 0 0 0 19
Holiness 12 3 1 11 0 27
Pentecostal 67 2 4 1 0 74
European Free-Church 2 1 0 0 0 3
Baptist 43 2 2 1 0 48
Independent Fundamentalist 6 0 0 1 0 7
Adventist 14 2 3 0 0 19
Liberal 4 1 0 2 1 8
Latter-day Saints 5 2 0 2 0 9
Communal 1 1 0 0 16 18
Christian Sci. - Metaphys. 9 0 0 0 0 9
Spiritualist, Psy., New Age 17 0 1 3 0 21
Ancient Wisdom 4 0 3 2 1 10
Magick 2 3 1 4 0 10
Middle Eastern 11 3 0 3 1 18
Eastern 37 4 3 12 3 59
Other 23 0 0 19 0 42
TOTAL 335 36 32 72 27 502

Table 2: Persistence in existence: percentage of associations established still existing in 2008

Family Number est. Currently Percent
Western Liturgical 59 41 69%
Eastern Liturgical 8 6 75%
Lutheran 10 7 70%
Reformed-Presbyterian 24 14 58%
Pietist-Methodist 19 11 58%
Holiness 27 13 48%
Pentecostal 74 35 47%
European Free-Church 3 3 100%
Baptist 48 28 58%
Independent Fundamentalist 7 7 100%
Adventist 19 17 89%
Liberal 8 2 25%
Latter-day Saints 9 7 78%
Communal 18 4 22%
Christian Sci. - Metaphys. 9 6 67%
Spiritualist, Psy., New Age 21 3 14%
Ancient Wisdom 10 8 80%
Magick 10 6 60%
Middle Eastern 18 13 72%
Eastern 59 33 56%
Other 42 11 26%
TOTAL 502 275 55%

Table 3: Associations existing in 2008, analyzed by type of activity

Family Worship Conf. Center School Service Org. Community TOTAL
Western Liturgical 21 4 5 9 2 41
Eastern Liturgical 3 0 1 1 1 6
Lutheran 6 1 0 0 0 7
Reformed-Presbyterian 13 1 0 0 0 14
Pietist-Methodist 8 3 0 0 0 11
Holiness 5 2 1 5 0 13
Pentecostal 29 1 4 1 0 35
European Free-Church 2 1 0 0 0 3
Baptist 24 1 2 1 0 28
Independent Fundamentalist 6 0 0 1 0 7
Adventist 13 2 2 0 0 17
Liberal 1 1 0 0 0 2
Latter-day Saints 3 2 0 2 0 7
Communal 1 1 0 0 2 4
Christian Sci. - Metaphys. 6 0 0 0 0 6
Spiritualist, Psy., New Age 2 0 0 1 0 3
Ancient Wisdom 2 0 3 2 1 8
Magick 1 2 1 2 0 6
Middle Eastern 7 3 0 3 0 13
Eastern 21 2 3 5 2 33
Other 3 0 0 8 0 11
TOTAL 177 27 22 41 8 275

Table 4: Numbers of associations in existence at various points in time

Family 1850 1900 1950 2008
Western Liturgical 2 19 27 41
Eastern Liturgical 0 0 0 6
Lutheran 0 1 4 7
Reformed-Presbyterian 0 11 10 14
Pietist-Methodist 1 7 13 11
Holiness 0 1 6 13
Pentecostal 0 0 18 35
European Free-Church 0 0 1 3
Baptist 0 8 11 28
Independent Fundamentalist 0 0 0 7
Adventist 0 3 9 17
Liberal 1 1 2 2
Latter-day Saints 0 0 2 7
Communal 1 2 2 4
Christian Sci. - Metaphys. 0 2 6 6
Spiritualist, Psy., New Age 0 1 0 3
Ancient Wisdom 0 1 1 8
Magick 0 0 0 6
Middle Eastern 0 2 2 13
Eastern 1 5 4 33
Other 0 4 8 11
TOTAL 6 68 126 275

For comparison: U. S. Census counts of Santa Cruz County population that year, rounded to nearest 1,000:

1850 1900 1950 2008
<1,000 21,000 67,000 250,000

Table 5: Tabulations from various religious surveys

In the general census of 1890 and in special religious censuses of 1906, 1916, 1926, and 1936 the United States Bureau of the Census obtained church data, including the counts of members. Many other organizations have also collected church membership data before 1890, after 1936, and between the two dates. Unfortunately the methodology, even that of the U.S. Census Bureau, has not been uniform. Kevin J. Christiano, Religious Diversity and Social Change: American Cities, 1890-1906, Cambridge University Press, 1987, pp. 29-41 discusses the accuracy of the U. S. Census counts, concluding that the counts from 1890 to 1926 are reasonably trustworthy. It is significant, however, that they were reported not by someone going door-to-door and asking the religious affiliation of the members of the household, but by tabulating questionnaires sent to and filled out by the pastors or heads of the individual congregations.

The sources of Table 5 are:

1890: U.S. Census, reported in Henry K. Carroll, Report on Statistics of Churches in the United States at the Eleventh Census: 1890. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1894.

1914: Summary of the data gathered by the Santa Cruz Federated Men's Club and reported in the SC Surf on June 12, 1914. Sixty to eighty workers went door to door, collecting data.

1926: Bureau of the Census. Census of Religious Bodies, 1926, Part I: Summary and Detailed Tables. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1930.

2000: Summary of the data gathered by the American Religious Data Archive and reported on its website, www.thearda.com/mapsReports 2004. The data were obtained by statistical sampling.

5a. The numbers reported in the surveys
Family 1890 U.S. Census 1914 SC Surf Religious Census 1926 U.S. Religious Census 2000 ARDA Counts
  # members SC County # households SC City # members SC County # persons SC County
Western Liturgical (1) 2,045 626 8,205 56,925
Eastern Liturgical — (2) 1 701
Lutheran 32 1,701
Reformed-Presbyterian 680 421 1,424 2.399
Pietist-Methodist 639 388 905 1,893
Holiness 9 33 1,360
Pentecostal 9 244 3,933
European Free-Church 3 95
Baptist 241 244 1,011 6,077
Independent Fundamentalist
Adventist 140 70 234 1.551
Liberal 100 62 179
Latter-day Saints 35 3 2,687
Christian Sci. - Metaphys. 93 97
Spiritualist, Psy., New Age (3) 60 23
Ancient Wisdom (4) 9 1 0
Magick
Middle Eastern (5) 10 90 8,616
Eastern (6)
Other 185 503
Total stating preference 4,143 2,019 12,693 88,117
Total population 19,270 3,165 32,000 (approx.) 255,602

5b. Groups' share of Santa Cruzans expressing preferences in percentages

Family 1890 1914 1926 2000
Western Liturgical (1) 49% 31% 65% 65%
Eastern Liturgical — (2) <1% 1%
Lutheran 2% 2%
Reformed-Presbyterian 16% 21% 11% 3%
Pietist-Methodist 15% 19% 7% 2%
Holiness <1% 2% 2%
Pentecostal <1% 2% 4%
European Free-Church <1% <1%
Baptist 6% 12% 8% 7%
Independent Fundamentalist 7%
Adventist 3% 3% 2% 2%
Liberal 2% 3% <1%
Latter-day Saints 1% <1% 3%
Christian Sci. - Metaphys. 5% 1%
Spiritualist, Psy., New Age (3) 1% 1%
Ancient Wisdom (4) <1% <1%
Magick
Middle Eastern (5) <1% 1% 10%
Eastern (6)
Non-denominational 1%
Other 4% 4%
Total stating preference 100% 100% 100% 100%
% of total pop 21% 71% 40% 34%

Notes to Tables 5a and 5b:

  1. Western liturgical: all these were Catholic except for Episcopalians: 149 in 1890, 200 (households) in 1914, 674 in 1926, and 1,575 in 2000.
  2. The symbol "—" signifies that no data are given for this group in this year.
  3. All Spiritualists.
  4. All Theosophists.
  5. The Middle Eastern group consisted entirely of Jews in 1914 and 1926. Of the 8,616 in the group in 2000 6,000 were Jews, 1,891 were Muslim, and the other 725 were Baha'i.
  6. Although ARDA states that in 2000 there were two Hindu and 12 Buddhist congregations, it presents no count of their members.

Table 6: Santa Cruz spirituality compared with that of two similar California places, with one "liberal" university town, and with one typical Midwestern city.

The data are from the www.smartpages.com listings online as of May 13, 2004. The writer cannot guarantee the accuracy or completeness of the data, but the general Yellow Pages (Smartpages) methodology can be seen by inspection to be quite uniform at least in these instances. This includes the headings, which have evolved over the years and which now readily lend themselves to comparison. If, then the interpretation of the data is distorted in the following table, the distortion can be taken to be uniform throughout, and thus the comparisons themselves stand valid.

Churches(1)

  Santa Cruz San Luis Obispo Santa Barbara Boulder, CO Racine, WI
Christian 241 315 164 230 207
Other 14 10 12 19 1
Total 255 325 14176 249 208

Religious conference centers & retreat facilities(2)

  Santa Cruz San Luis Obispo Santa Barbara Boulder, CO Racine, WI
Christian 8 1 4 4 3
Other religious 5 0 2 0 0
Total 13 1 6 4 3
Non-religious 10 2 6 5 1
Grand total 23 3 12 9 4

Population figures for these cities from the year 2000:

  City Population County Population
Santa Cruz, CA 54,000 255,000
San Luis Obispo, CA 44,000 246,000
Santa Barbara, CA 92,000 399,000
Boulder, CO 94,000 291,000
Racine, WI 81,000 188,000

Notes for Table 6:

  1. Includes the Smartpages headings, "churches," "synagogues," and "mosques," whereas there is no heading, "temples." The heading "churches" includes various kinds of worship congregations, so the count "other" is derived from inspecting and interpreting the names of the "churches" and adding "synagogues" and "mosques."
  2. As in note 1, the counts other than the total are derived from inspection and interpretation of the names of the "conference centers" and "retreat facilities."

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